timeline of grece and rome


  anient greece timeline

8000 BCE

Mesolithic Period


Earliest evidence of burials found in Franchthi Cave in the Argolid, Greece

7250 BCE


Evidence of food producing economy, simple hut construction, and seafaring in mainland Greece and the Aegean

7000 BCE

Neolithic Period
(7000-3000 BCE)


First "Megaron House" at Sesclo, in central Greece

5700 BCE


Evidence of earliest fortifications at Dimini, Greece

3400 BCE


Houses of Vasiliki and Myrtos
Messara Tholoi
House of Tiles at Lerna

3000 BCE

Aegean Bronze Age
or Early Bronze Age

Minoan Prepalatial
or: EMIA, EMIB (3000-2600 BCE)
Early Cycladic Culture
Early Helladic Period


2600 BCE

Minoan Prepalatial Period
(2600-2000 BCE)


Destruction of Minoan settlements

2000 BCE

Minoan Protopalatial Period
(1900-1700 BCE)
Early Middle Cycladic (2000-1600 BCE)
Middle Helladic Period
or Middle Bronze Age


Destruction of Minoan palaces
Settlement of Akrotiri, Thera
Grave Circle B at Mycenae

1700 BCE

Minoan Neopalatial Period
or: LMIA Advanced, LMIA Final, LMIB Early, LMIB Late, LMII


Eruption of Thera volcano (sometime between 1627 and 1600)

1627 BCE


Grave Circle A at Mycenae
Argo Voyage, Heracles, Oedipus

1600 BCE

Late Bronze Period
or The Heroic Age

Tholos Tomb at Mycenae

1550 BCE

Late Helladic Period


Linear B writing (1450-1180)

1450 BCE


Mycenaean Palaces
Evidence of expanded Mycenaean trade at Levand

1400 BCE

Minoan Postpalatial Period


Palace of Knossos destruction

1370 BCE


"Sea Peoples" begin raids in the Eastern Mediterranean

1300 BCE

Mycenaean Culture


Trojan War (1250 or 1210)

1250 BCE


Destruction of many Mycenaean palaces
Doric Invasions? (1200-1100)
Sea Peoples (1200-1100)

1200 BCE


1180 BCE

Sub-Mycenaean Period
Destruction of Miletus and resettlement

1100 BCE

Sub-Minoan Period
Dark Age of Greece
Proto-Geometric Period


End of Mycenaean civilization
Lefkandi: Toumba building

1000 BCE


900 BCE

Geometric Period


First Olympic Games

776 BCE


Greek colonies established in Southern Italy & Sicily
Invention of Greek alphabet
Homeric poems recorded in writing (750-700)

750 BCE

Late Geometric
(circa 760-700)


740 BCE

Orientalizing Period
(circa 740-650)


First Messenian War
Sparta invades Messenia
Naxos founded (734)
Syracuse founded (733)

730 BCE


700 BCE

Archaic Period


Earliest Lyric Poets

650 BCE


Second Messenian War
Sparta invades Messenia (640-630)
Cyrene founded (630)

640 BCE


Sappho born in Lesbos

630 BCE


Thales (625-545) born in Miletos

625 BCE


Pythagoras (ca. 569-475) born in Samos

569 BCE


Solon replaces the Draconian law in Athens and lays the foundation for Democracy.
He introduced to Athens the first coinage and a system of weights and measures

594 BCE


Pisistratos becomes tyrant of Athens

546 BCE


Pesistratos Dies. His sons become tyrants of Athens

527 BCE


Red-figure pottery developed in Athens

525 BCE


Alcmaeonid family and Spartans free Athens from tyranny.
Introduction of Democracy in Athens

510 BCE


Kleisthenes begins reforming Athenian code of laws, and establishes a democratic constitution

508 BCE


Ionian revolt

499 BCE


Ionian revolt defeated by Persians

494 BCE


Persian Wars

497-479 BCE


Battle of Marathon
Athenians defeat Darius and his Persian army

490 BCE


Silver mines discovered near Athens.
Athens begin building naval fleet

483 BCE


Aristides ostracized

482 BCE


Xerxes marches on Greece
Battle of Thermopylae
Persians burn the Acropolis
Athens and allies defeat Persian fleet at naval battle of Salamis

480 BCE

Classical Period
(480-323 )
Transitional (480-450)


Battle of Plataea
Greeks defeat Persian army

479 BCE


Delian league lead by Athens

477 BCE


Earthquake in Lakonia
Helot revolt against Sparta in Messenia

465 BCE


Peloponnesian Wars:
"First Peloponnesian War"



Perikles leads Athens through its "Golden Era" (ca. 460-429)

460 BCE


Aeschylus produces "the Oresteia" trilogy of tragedies (Agamemnon, Libation Barers, Eumenides) in Athens

458 BCE


Delian league treasury moved from Delos to Athens

454 BCE


Sophist Protagoras visits Athens

450 BCE


Acropolis and other major building projects begin in Athens
Construction of Parthenon (449-432)
Sophocles produces the tragedy "Ajax"

449 BCE


Thirty-year peace treaty signed between Athens and Sparta in winter 446/445

446 BCE


Sophocles produces "Antigone" in Athens 430-429

441 BCE


Peloponnesian War (431-404) resumes
Euripedes produces "Medea" in Athens

431 BCE


Plague epidemic in Athens

430 BCE


Death of Perikles

429 BCE


Peace of Nicias

421 BCE


Construction of Temple of Athena Nike (420-410)

420 BCE


Athenians resume hostilities
Spartans defeat Athens at Mantinea

418 BCE


Athens razes Melos

416 BCE


Athens expedition to Syracuse
Alcibiades defects to Sparta

415 BCE


Syracuse defeats Athens

413 BCE


Aristophanes produces "Lysistrata"

411 BCE


Athens surrenders to Sparta
Thirty tyrants rule Athens

404 BCE


Democracy restored in Athens

403 BCE


Trial and execution of Socrates

399 BCE


Plato establishes the Athens Academy

380 BCE


Sparta defeated in Leuctra

371 BCE


Thebes defeats Sparta at Mantinea

362 BCE


Philip II, becomes King of Macedonia

359 BCE


Macedonian army defeats Athens and its allies at Chaeronea
League of Corinth founded

338 BCE


Phillip II Assassinated.
Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedonia

336 BCE


Aristotle founds the Lyceum in Athens

335 BCE


Alexander the Great defeats Persian army at Granicus river in Anatolia

334 BCE


Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Issus

333 BCE


Tyre capitulates to Alexander after siege

332 BCE


Alexander invades Egypt
City of Alexandria founded in Egypt
Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela

331 BCE


Alexander's army reaches Bactria (Afghanistan)

329 BCE


Alexander marries Roxane (princes of Bactria)

327 BCE


Alexander's army reaches India

326 BCE


Death of Alexander the Great

323 BCE

Hellenistic Period


Aristotle dies

322 BCE


Stoic philosopher Zeno founds school in Athens

310 BCE


Stoic philosopher Epicurus founds school in Athens

307 BCE


Ptolemy I founds museum in Alexandria

300 BCE


Archimedes (287-212) born in Syracuse

287 BCE


Achaean League founded

284 BCE


Invasion of Greece by Gauls

279 BCE


Gauls defeated by king Attalus I

238 BCE


First Macedonian War (214-204)
Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon

214 BCE


Second Macedonian War (200-196)
Victory of Flamininus at Cynoscephalae

200 BCE


Third Macedonian War (172-168/7)
Lucius Aemelius Paulus of Rome defeats Perseus of Macedon at Pydna.
Macedonia divided into four republics

172 BCE


Roman Invasion of Greece
Mummius Achaicus sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league.
Rome rules Greece henceforth

146 BCE

Late Hellenistic or Greco-Roman (146-30)


Romans lead by Sulla sack Athens

86 BCE


Battle of Aktion
Octavian (later Augustus) defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra

31 BCE


Death of Cleopatra

30 BCE

End of "Ancient Greece" period

ancient rome time line

753 BC Rome founded
According to legend, two brothers descended from the Trojan Prince Aeneas are exposed at birth. Romulus and Remus want to found a city but quarrel over which hill to site it on. Romulus kills Remus and Rome is founded on the Palatine Hill, on the bank of the River Tiber in Latium.

509 BC Republic established
Roman history states that worsening misrule under King Tarqunius Superbus prompts his expulsion by Rome's aristocracy. In its place, nobles establish a Republic ruled by annually elected consuls and guided by a powerful Senate. Citizens vote in popular assemblies weighted in favour of higher-ranking individuals.

406 BC Rome attacks Veii
After centuries of beating back invaders, Rome goes on the offensive against the neighbouring Etruscan city of Veii. The siege of Veii lasts 10 years. It's the first major victory in a campaign of steady expansion into adjacent Latin and Etruscan territory.

390 BC Gauls sack Rome
Roman defenders fail to stop a huge Gallic invasion at the battle of the Allia river. The Gauls sweep into Rome and sack the city. It takes payments of gold to persuade them to leave. The defeat leaves a permanent scar on the collective Roman consciousness.

343-341 BC First Samnite War
Seeking to extend its sphere of influence further into Italy, Rome takes on its toughest enemy yet – the Samnite nation of fierce mountain warriors. Rome wins this conflict, leaving it in control of the fertile Campania region south of Latium. This victory increases Rome's power-base significantly.

340-338 BC Latin War
Frustration at Rome's increasing domination of Latium leads to a revolt by a number of Latin states. Rome swiftly crushes military resistance in Latium but consolidates its hold on power there by extending Roman citizenship to almost all parts of the territory.

326-304 BC Second Samnite War
Rome's second clash with the Samnites is far more arduous. Roman legions take fierce beatings at the battle of the Claudine Forks (321 BC) and Lautulae (315 BC). But superior Roman reserves of men and material take their toll and the Samnites are eventually crushed.

298-290 BC Third Samnite War
The Samnites make a last-ditch effort to shake off Roman domination by allying themselves with the Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls. But the Roman war machine is stronger than ever, partly due to the construction of new roads. Rome defeats the alliance at the battle of Sentinum (295 BC).

280-275 BC Pyrrhic War
Rome quarrels with the Greek-founded city of Tarentum, which summons assistance from the Greek King Pyrrhus. A gifted general, Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Heraclea (280 BC) and Asculum (279 BC). But the "Pyrrhic" victories have come at too great a cost. Pyrrhus is crushed by Rome at Beneventum (275 BC).

264-241 BC First Punic War
Rome's first conflict with the Phoenician city of Carthage is fought mainly at sea. Until this point, Rome has not been a sea power but it builds its own navy and defeats Carthage in a series of sea battles. Victory in this war leaves Rome in possession of Sicily.

238 BC Rome gains Sardinia and Corsica
Insurgents in Carthage-controlled Sardinia invite Roman forces into the island's garrison. Rome is in clear violation of its peace treaty with Carthage but threatens war when Carthage objects. The Phoenician city is obliged to cede Sardinia and Corsica to Rome.

218-202 BC Second Punic War begins
The Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca marches his forces over the Alps to take on the Romans. He wins a series of spectacular victories and almost defeats Rome. But the Romans hold out and take the fight to Africa, defeating Hannibal at the battle of Zama. Rome now controls Spain.

214-205 BC First Macedonian War
King Philip of Macedonia throws in his lot with Carthage and invades Rome's client states in Illyria (the modern Balkans). Effective Roman retaliation is difficult because resources are needed for the war against Carthage. The conflict ends in stalemate.

200-196 BC Second Macedonian War
Rome gathers Greek allies and then defeats Philip of Macedonia at the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. Philip keeps his throne but must stay within his borders. Over the next decade, Rome intervenes in Greece on several occasions in order to assert its dominance in the eastern Mediterranean.

171-168 BC Third Macedonian War
King Perseus of Macedonia agitates among the Greek states. Rome sends a force to engage Perseus but, in a sign of a growing trend among Roman nobles abroad, its commander is more interested in collecting booty. Eventually, Perseus is defeated at the battle of Pydna. Macedonia is divided into four separate states.

149-146 BC Third Punic War
After taking advantage of a border dispute, Rome moves to crush Carthage utterly. Its far superior forces besiege the city. When Carthage eventually falls in 146 BC, the Romans level it and enslave 50,000 Carthaginians. This brutal victory leaves Rome in possession of Carthaginian north Africa.

150-146 BC Fourth Macedonian War
Andriscus, a pretender to the throne, attempts to wrest control of the four Macedonian states from Rome. He is defeated in 148 BC. Rome goes on to stamp out any remaining resistance in Greece. The ancient city of Corinth is sacked and completely destroyed in 146 BC.

133 BC Tiberius Gracchus murdered
Tiberius Gracchus, a reform-minded Tribune, proposes the redistribution of public land to peasants. Aristocrats accustomed to profiting from the land object. The row sparks civil disorder and Gracchus is killed at a popular assembly meeting. In 121 BC, Tiberius' brother, Gaius, is murdered amid rioting over more reform proposals.

107 BC Marius elected Consul
A gifted soldier and popular politician, Gaius Marius is elected consul six times between 107 BC and 100 BC. He is responsible for abolishing property qualifications for military service. Crucially, this means that previously poor soldiers in search of future property settlements learn to express more loyalty to their commanders than to the Republic.

91-89 BC Social War
Attempts to grant Italians Roman citizenship founder and several Italian states rise up against Rome. The states declare an independent confederacy called Italia and mint their own coins. Their powerful army is a real threat and Rome agrees to extend citizenship to most Italians.

88 BC Sulla marches on Rome
Lucius Cornelius Sulla, an ambitious consul, marches troops personally loyal to him into Rome when he is stripped of a potentially lucrative military command in Asia. After campaigning in the East, Sulla returns to Rome and rules as dictator, killing many enemies and giving their land to his veterans.

73-71 BC Spartacus leads slave revolt
Spartacus, a Thracian gladiator, leads a slave revolt that recruits at least 90,000 people. After ranging across Italy, the revolt is put down by Marcus Crassus and Spartacus is killed. Remnants of his force are finished off by Pompey. Pompey and Crassus join forces politically and both become consuls in 70 AD.

65 BC Caesar elected aedile
Julius Caesar, after years of steady progression in Roman political life, is elected to this mid-ranking but influential position with responsibility for organising games. While in office, he exploits his knack for populism and spends lavishly. In 63 BC, he is elected Pontifex Maximus, or high priest.

63 BC Catiline conspiracy
Amid steadily increasing political violence, consul Marcus Tullius Cicero accuses Lucius Sergius Catalina (Catiline) of conspiring against the Republic. Cicero orders the ringleaders to be executed but Cataline escapes and raises an army of veterans and other dissidents. He is killed by Republican forces in 62 BC.

59 BC Caesar, Pompey and Crassus strike alliance
Julius Caesar surprises the Senate by pulling off a three-way alliance between himself, Pompey and Marcus Crassus. The accord propels him to the consulship of 59 BC. Renewed in 56 BC, the agreement permits all three men to secure lucrative foreign commands for themselves.

58-50 BC Caesar campaigns in Gaul
Eight years as governor of Gaul brings Julius Caesar great riches and much popularity. By employing harsh tactics against scattered tribes, Caesar extends the frontier of Gaul to the west bank of the Rhine. His stiffest test comes in 52 BC, when he defeats a huge combined force of Gauls at the battle of Alesia.

53 BC Defeat of Romans at Carrhae
Marcus Crassus, eager for a share of the glory won by contemporary rivals like Pompey, embarks on a poorly planned adventure in Parthia, far to the east of his Syrian governorship. The campaign founders in the harsh Parthian desert. Crassus, along with thousands of his men, are cut to pieces at the battle of Carrhae.

49 BC Caesar crosses Rubicon
Julius Caesar commits himself to civil war when he takes his legion across the small Rubicon river separating Gaul and Italy. Caesar sweeps into a Rome abandoned by the coalition of nobles opposed to him and swiftly establishes control of the city.

48 BC Caesar defeats Pompey
Julius Caesar pursues opposition forces commanded by Pompey to north-western Greece, where he defeats them at the battle of Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is murdered. Caesar strikes an alliance – and fathers a son – with Queen Cleopatra before crushing the remnants of the opposition army in north Africa.

44 BC Death of Caesar
Julius Caesar is declared dictator for life. Despite the fact that his rule, by recent standards, has not been bloody, more and more aristocrats feel that he is becoming too king-like and that he threatens their interests. On March 15, a group of nobles surround Caesar in the Senate and stab him to death.

events around the world.

around the time Greece and Rome were around a few other things were happening around the world such as the hitte empire reaches its height in Asia at 1500 BC, and there is the rise of Etruscan civilization in Italy around 800 bc. dont forget the that the great wall of china was built in 221 BC


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